Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Current Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Conditions  • Kilauea Summit Area

Current SO and PM2.5 conditions in
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park

National Park Map showing approximate location of the Halemaʻumaʻu and Puʻu ʻŌʻō gas plumes in
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
 SO2 concentrations (ppm) at nine locations, and PM2.5 at two locations in the park.

 Click on the MAP for current information on
sulfur dioxide Conditions in the Volcano area:

CLICK for Current Vog Conditions in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

Please keep in mind that most times we do have trade winds,
which means the emissions blow away from any residential areas in Volcano,
so even though Volcano Village is close to the source of the emission,
it is most times the least effected by it. 
Of course, wind directions can change for short periods of time,
and one can not predict when that will happen. 


Current & Past Air Quality Data

The airborne concentrations of SO2 gas and PM2.5 (fine particles) are measured within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and across the Island of Hawai'i (see links below).

In any location, vog concentrations are primarily dependent on the amount of volcanic emissions, the distance away from the source vents, and the wind direction and speed on a given day. The most common wind patterns in the Hawaiian Islands are the northeasterly trade winds. Consequently, the areas southwest of Kīlauea are most frequently affected by vog on Hawaiʻi Island. When trade winds are absent, which occurs most often during the winter months, east Hawaiʻi, the entire island, or the entire state can be impacted by vog.

Sulfur dioxide emissions from Kīlauea volcano have decreased substantially since the beginning of the 2008 Halema`uma`u eruption, resulting in less vog for the island and state. In general, SO2 and PM2.5 are below levels considered to cause serious health effects for the general population, however, some individuals may experience symptoms from both PM2.5 and SO2 exposures, depending on location.

SO2 and PM2.5 concentrations over the last several years:

  • In areas close to the eruptive vents (e.g., Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HVNP) and surrounds): Under certain wind conditions, SO2 can reach levels considered ‘unhealthy’ for the general population, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  • Downwind areas relatively near the volcano (approximately ranging from Ocean View to Hilo):  Under certain wind conditions, SO2 can reach levels considered ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ as defined by the EPA.

  •  In most areas: PM2.5 concentrations only occasionally reach levels considered ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups,’ as defined by the EPA. 

The County of Hawaiʻi, Department of Health, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and several federal agencies worked together to form a short-term SO2 color code advisory system (see image to right), designed to alert people to volcanic SO2 pollution in Hawaiʻi. The same color code system is used by EPA for PM2.5 24-hour advisories.

Most times we have TRADE WINDS, in which case all fumes blow away from us:

Graphic showing the approximate location and shape of the Kilauea Summit and Pu'u 'O'o sulfur dioxide gas plumes as based on wind direction measurements.

SO2 gas plume crosses road near Halemaumau and low on Chain of Craters Road.
Sensitive individuals should limit exposure in these areas.

CAUTION: Check the "Last Updated" time to confirm that the posted data are current.
While all efforts have been made to provide timely updates,
technical difficulties may cause delays and periods of missing data.






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