Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Current Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Conditions •
Kilauea Summit Area
SO2 concentrations (ppm) at nine locations, and PM2.5
Click on the
MAP for current information on
sulfur dioxide Conditions in the Volcano area:
Please keep in mind that most times we do
have trade winds,
which means the emissions blow away from any residential areas in Volcano,
so even though Volcano Village is close to the source of the emission,
it is most times the least effected by it.
Of course, wind directions can change for short periods of time,
and one can not predict when that will happen.
Current & Past
Air Quality Data
airborne concentrations of SO2 gas and PM2.5
(fine particles) are measured within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National
Park and across the Island of Hawai'i (see links below).
location, vog concentrations are primarily dependent on the
amount of volcanic emissions, the distance away from the source
vents, and the wind direction and speed on a given day. The most
common wind patterns in the Hawaiian Islands are the
northeasterly trade winds. Consequently, the areas southwest of
Kīlauea are most frequently affected by vog on Hawaiʻi Island.
When trade winds are absent, which occurs most often during the
winter months, east Hawaiʻi, the entire island, or the entire
state can be impacted by vog.
dioxide emissions from Kīlauea volcano have decreased
substantially since the beginning of the 2008 Halema`uma`u
eruption, resulting in less vog for the island and state. In
general, SO2 and PM2.5 are below levels
considered to cause serious health effects for the general
population, however, some individuals may experience symptoms
from both PM2.5 and SO2 exposures,
depending on location.
and PM2.5 concentrations over the last several years:
areas close to the eruptive vents (e.g., Hawaiʻi
Volcanoes National Park (HVNP) and surrounds): Under certain
wind conditions, SO2 can reach levels considered
‘unhealthy’ for the general population, as defined by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Downwind areas relatively near the volcano
(approximately ranging from Ocean View to Hilo): Under
certain wind conditions, SO2 can reach levels
considered ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ as defined by
most areas: PM2.5 concentrations only
occasionally reach levels considered ‘unhealthy for
sensitive groups,’ as defined by the EPA.
The County of Hawaiʻi,
Department of Health, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and
several federal agencies worked together to form a short-term SO2
color code advisory system (see image to right), designed
to alert people to volcanic SO2 pollution in Hawaiʻi.
The same color code system is used by EPA for PM2.5
Most times we have TRADE WINDS, in which case
all fumes blow away from us:
SO2 gas plume crosses road near Halemaumau
and low on Chain of Craters Road.
Sensitive individuals should limit exposure in these areas.
CAUTION: Check the "Last Updated" time to confirm that the posted data
While all efforts have been made to provide timely updates,
technical difficulties may cause delays and periods of missing data.